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IELTS Actual Reading Test series is one of the “must-have IELTS books” for all IELTS candidates. It accumulates the authentic IELTS reading. IELTS READING RECENT ACTUAL TESTS ( – ) WITH ANSWERS Beside Cambridge IELTS Practice Tests series published by Oxford University. [Ebook] IELTS Reading Recent Tests with Answer bloccocverbnerbe.cf from ACCOUNTING at University of Notre Dame. 1|Page IELTS READING RECENT ACTUAL.
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His research of static electricity using amber and jet only demonstrated that objects with electrical charges can work like magnets attracting small pieces of paper and stuff. Nghin cu v in tnh s dng h phch v mu en hunh ch cho thy cc vt c in tch c th hot ng nh nam chm dng ht cc mnh giy hay cc vt nh. It is a French guy named du Fay that discovered that there are actually two electrical charges, positive and negative. Chnh mt anh chng ngi Php tn du Fay pht hin ra rng thc s c hai in tch l in tch m v in tch dng.
Anh ny cng t cu hi v nim tin thin vn truyn thng. Though a Copernican, he didnt express in his quintessential beliefs whether the earth is at the centre of the universe or in orbit around the sun. Mc d theo hc thuyt ca Copernicus nhng anh ny khng th hin nim tin ca mnh l liu tri t c phi l trung tm ca v tr hay trn qu o xung quanh mt tri hay khng. However, he believed that stars are not equidistant from the earth but have their own earth-like planets orbiting around them.
Tuy nhin, anh tin rng cc ngi sao khng cch u nhau nu so vi tri t nhng c nhng hnh tinh ging tri t ca chng ta ang quay xung quanh chng.
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The earth itself is like a giant magnet, which is also why compasses always point north. Bn thn tri t ging nh mt nam chm khng l, m cng gii thch v sao la bn lun hng v pha bc. They spin on an axis that is aligned with the earths polarity. Chng xoay trn trn mt trc thng hng vi cc ca tri t. He even likened the polarity of the magnet to the polarity of the earth and built an entire magnetic philosophy on this analogy. In his explanation, magnetism is the soul of the earth. Trong li gii thch ca mnh, ng ni t tnh l linh hn ca tri t.
Thus a perfectly spherical lodestone, when aligned with the earths poles, would wobble all by itself in 24 hours. Do mt loi nam chm hnh cu hon ho, khi lin kt vi cc cc ca tri t, s t mnh lc l trong vng 24 gi. Further, he also believed that the sun and other stars wobble just like the earth does around a crystal core, and speculated that the moon might also be a magnet caused to orbit by its magnetic attraction to the earth. This was perhaps the first proposal that a force might cause a heavenly orbit.
His research method was revolutionary in that he used experiments rather than pure logic and reasoning like the ancient Greek philosophers did. Phng php nghin cu ca ng c xem l mt cuc cch mng v ng s dng cc th nghim ch khng phi l l lun thun ty ging nh cc trit gia Hy Lp c i lm. It was a new attitude towards scientific investigation. Until then, scientific experiments were not in fashion.
Cho n lc , cc th nghim khoa hc cha phi l mt.
It was because of this scientific attitude, together with his contribution to our knowledge of magnetism, that a unit of magneto motive force, also known as magnetic potential, was named Gilbert in his honour. V v thi khoa hc ny cng vi s ng gp ca ng vo kin thc v t tnh ca chng ta, rng mt n v ca lc t magneto, cn c gi l tim nng t tnh, c t tn l Gilbert tn vinh ng. His approach of careful observation and experimentation rather than the authoritative opinion or deductive philosophy of others had laid the very foundation for modern science.
Cch tip cn ca ng trong vic quan st v th nghim cn thn ch khng phi l quan im c thm quyn hay trit l suy lun ca ngi khc t nn mng cho nn khoa hc hin i. Chin tch y l khi im cho th thng phong trn bin ca nc Anh.
Vi thng li ca H qun Anh, trn Gravelines c coi l mt trong nhng trn hi chin ni bt nht trong lch s th gii. Mikoaj Kopernik ting Anh: Nicolaus Copernicus, ting c: Nikolaus Kopernikus l mt nh ton hc, thin vn hc, lut gia, nh tm l hc, hc gi kinh in, nh cai tr, vin chc hnh chnh, nh ngoi giao, nh kinh t, v ngi lnh. Trong s nhng kh nng ca mnh, ng la chn thin vn hc lm ngh nghip chnh, s pht trin thuyt nht tm mt tri trung tm ch khng phi Tri t l trung tm ca ng c coi l gi thuyt khoa hc quan trng nht trong lch s.
N nh du bc chuyn sang thin vn hc hin i v t l khoa hc hin i, khuyn khch cc nh thin vn tr, cc nh khoa hc v cc hc gi c thi hoi nghi vi nhng gio iu tn ti t trc. We knew that summer was remarkable: Britain experienced its record high temperature and continental Europe saw forest fires raging out of control, great rivers drying to a trickle and thousands of heat-related deaths.
Chng ta bit ma h nm rt ng ch : Nc Anh tri qua nhit cao k lc v lc a chu u din ra chy rng vt ngoi tm kim sot, cc con sng ln kh kit khin hng nghn ngi cht v nng. But just how remarkable is only now becoming clear. Nhng iu ng ch by gi mi r rng. The three months of June, July and August were the warmest ever recorded in western and central Europe, with record national highs in Portugal, Germany and Switzerland as well as in Britain.
And they were the warmest by a very long way. V chng l ni m p nht th gii trong mt thi k di. Over a great rectangular block of the earth stretching from west of Paris to northern Italy, taking in Switzerland and southern Germany, the average temperature for the summer months was 3,78C 17 above the long-term norm, said the Climatic Research Unit CRU of the University of East Anglia in Norwich, which is one of the world's leading institutions for the monitoring and analysis of temperature records.
That excess might not seem a lot until you are aware of the context - but then you realise it is enormous. There is nothing like this in previous data, anywhere.
It is considered so exceptional that Professor Phil Jones, the CRU's director, is prepared to say openly - in a way few scientists have done before - that the extreme may be directly attributed, not to natural climate variability, but to global warming caused by human actions. Gio s Phil Jones, gim c ca CRU, chun b sn sng ni mt cch ci m - cch m t nh khoa hc lm trc - iu cc oan nm c th c quy trc tip v s nng ln ton cu do Hnh ng ca con ngi ch khng phi do s bin i kh hu thin nhin.
Meteorologists have hitherto contented themselves with the formula that recent high temperatures are consistent with predictions of climate change. For the great block of the map - that stretching between N and E - the CRU has reliable temperature records dating back to Using as a baseline the average summer temperature recorded between and , departures from the temperature norm, or anomalies, over the area as a whole can easily be plotted.
S dng nh mt ng c s nhit trung bnh ma h c ghi nhn gia nm v , khi im t ch tiu nhit , hoc "bt thng", trn din tch ni chung m ta c th d dng v c. Nh biu cho thy, s thay i kh hu ca chng ta trong sut nm qua c t nht su im d thng, v nhit vt qu - nhng nh cao trn th biu th nhng nm rt nng xp x hoc thm ch nhiu hn 2 C.
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But there has been nothing remotely like , when the anomaly is nearly four degrees. Nhng khng c my may no ging nm , khi s khc bit n gn 4. This is quite remarkable, Professor Jones told The Independent. Gio s Jones ni vi The Independent: "iu ny kh l ng ch. Its very unusual in a statistical sense. If this series had a normal statistical distribution, you wouldnt get this number. Nu mt lot hin tng ny c xp loi thng k bnh thng, bn s khng nhn c con s ny.
The return period [how often it could be expected to recur] would be something like one in a thousand years. If we look at an excess above the average of nearly four degrees, then perhaps nearly three degrees of that is natural variability, because weve seen that in past summers. But the final degree of it is likely to be due to global warming, caused by human actions.
Nu chng ta nhn vo mc d tha trn mc trung bnh gn bn , th c l gn ba l s bin i t nhin nh nhng g chng ta thy trong nhng ma h va qua. Nhng mc cui cng ca n c th l do s nng ln ton cu, xut pht t hnh ng ca con ngi. The summer of has, in a sense, been one that climate scientists have long been expecting.
Last week, the United Nations predicted that winters were warming so quickly that winter sports would die out in Europes lower-level ski resorts. Tun trc, Lin Hp Quc d on ma ng ang m ln nhanh n ni cc mn th thao ma ng s khng cn tn ti trong cc khu ngh mt trt tuyt gi thp ca chu u.
But sooner or later, the unprecedented hot summer was bound to come, and this year it did.
Nhng sm hay mun, ma h nng bc cha tng c chc chn s n, v nm nay n xy ra. One of the most dramatic features of the summer was the hot nights, especially in the first half of August. Mt trong nhng c im n tng nht ca ma h l nhng m nng, c bit l trong na u thng Tm. In Paris, the temperature never dropped below 23C 73,4F at all between 7 and 14 August, and the city recorded its warmest-ever night on August, when the mercury did not drop below 25,5C 77,9F.
Paris, nhit khng bao gi gim xung di 23 C 73,4 F t 7 n 14 thng Tm, v thnh ph ghi du m m nht t thng Tm, khi thu ngn khng gim xung di 25,5 C 77,9 F. Germany recorded its warmest-ever night at Weinbiet in the Rhine Valley with a lowest figure of 27,6C 80,6F on 13 August, and similar record-breaking nighttime temperatures were recorded in Switzerland and Italy.
The 15, excess deaths in France during August, compared with previous years, have been related to the high night-time temperatures. Php 15, ngi cht trong thng Tm, so vi nhng nm trc, con s ny lin quan n nhit cao ban m.
S lng tng dn trong 12 ngy u ca thng, t nh im vo khong ngy m vo m thng 8, sau gim mnh sau ngy 14 thng 8 khi nhit ti thiu gim xung khong 5 C. The elderly were most affected, with a 70 per cent increase in mortality rate in those aged For Britain, the year as a whole is likely to be the warmest ever recorded, but despite the high temperature record on 10 August, the summer itself - defined as the June, July and August period - still comes behind and , when there were longer periods of intense heat.
At the moment, the year is on course to be the third hottest ever in the global temperature record, which goes back to , behind and , but when all the records for October, November and December are collated, it might move into second place', Professor Jones said. Gio s Jones ni "Hin ti, nm nay l nm nng th ba trong k lc nhit ton cu, bt u t nm , sau nm v nm , nhng khi i chiu tt c cc bn bo co ca thng mi, thng mi mt v thng mi hai, n c th chuyn xung ng th hai.
The ten hottest years in the record have all now occurred since Mi nm nng nht trong k lc xy ra t nm Professor Jones is in no doubt about the astonishing nature of European summer of Gio s Jones khng nghi ng g v tnh cht ng ngc nhin ca ma h Chu u nm The temperatures recorded were out of all proportion to the previous record," he said. It was the warmest summer in the past years and probably way beyond that. It was enormously exceptional. It was a summer that has not been experienced before, either in terms of the temperature extremes that were reached, or the range and diversity of the impacts of the extreme heat," said the centre's executive director, Professor Mike Hulme.
Gio s Mike Hulme Gim c iu hnh ca trung tm, cho bit: " l mt ma h cha tng c trc , v c nhit cc oan t c, v phm vi cng nh s a dng trong tc ng ca nhit cc oan. It will certainly have left its mark on a number of countries, as to how they think and plan for climate change in the future, much as the floods have revolutionised the way the Government is thinking about flooding in the UK.
The heatwave will have similar repercussions across Europe. Dch bi Nguyn Linh Hng Source: 22 Nhng nh t nhin hc nghip d From the results of an annual Alaskan betting contest to sightings of migratory birds, ecologists are using a wealth of unusual data to predict the impact of climate change.
Theo kt qu ti mt cuc thi c cc hng nm ca ngi Alaska v quan st cc loi chim di c, cc nh sinh thi hc s dng rt nhiu d liu khng thng thng d on tc ng ca bin i kh hu. Tim Sparks slides a small leather-bound notebook out of an envelope. Tim Sparks ko mt cun s tay nh ba da ra khi bao th. The book's yellowing pages contain bee-keeping notes made between and by the late Walter Coates of Kilworth, Leicestershire.
Cc trang ba mu vng ca cun sch gm cc ghi chp v ngh nui ong c thc hin t nm n nm bi Walter Coates - Kilworth, Leicestershire. Around two centuries before Coates, Robert Marsham, a landowner from Norfolk in the east of England, began recording the life cycles of plants and animals on his estate - when the first wood anemones flowered, the dates on which the oaks burst into leaf and the rooks began nesting.
Khong hai th k trc Coates, Robert Marsham, mt ch t n t Norfolk - pha ng nc Anh, bt u ghi chp li chu k sng ca cc loi ng thc vt ti in trang ca ng vo lc m nhng bng thu mu n rng u tin n hoa, cy si m chi ny lc v qu bt u lm t.
Successive Marshams continued compiling these notes for years. Marshams tip ni vic bin son cc ghi ch trong vng nm ny. Today, such records are being put to uses that their authors could not possibly have expected.
These data sets, and others like them, are proving invaluable to ecologists interested in the timing of biological events, or phenology. Nhng b d liu ny, v nhng th tng t khc, c tnh v gi i vi cc nh sinh thi hc quan tm n thi im ca cc s kin sinh hc, hoc vt hu hc. A small band of researchers is combing through hundreds of years of records taken by thousands of amateur naturalists.
Mt nhm nh cc nh nghin cu ang sn lng cc b h s c tui i hng trm nm ca hng ngn nh t nhin hc nghip d. And more systematic projects have also started up, producing an overwhelming response.
Sparks first became aware of the army of "closet phenologists, as he describes them, when a retiring colleague gave him the Marsham records. Sparks ln u tin nghe n i qun "cc nh vt hu hc trong phng", cch m ng m t, khi mt ng nghip v hu a cho ng ta cc b h s ca Marsham.
He now spends much of his time following leads from one historical data set to another. Khi nhng tin tc v vic tm kim ca ng c lan truyn, mi ngi tit l cho ng nhng b h s lch s khc, v cng nhiu nh vt hu hc nghip d khc tip bc. The British devotion to recording and collecting makes his job easier - one man from Kent sent him 30 years' worth of kitchen calendars, on which he had noted the date that his neighbour's magnolia tree flowered.
S tn tm ca ngi Anh i vi vic ghi chp v thu thp lm cho cng vic ca ng d dng hn - mt ngi n t Kent gi ng nhng b lch bp 30 tui, ghi nhn ngy m cy mc lan ca ngi hng xm n hoa. Other researchers have unearthed data from equally odd sources.
Cc nh nghin cu khc cng khai qut d liu t cc ngun k quc nh vy. Rafe Sagarin, an ecologist at Stanford University in California, recently studied records of a betting contest in which participants attempt to guess the exact time at which a specially erected wooden tripod will fall through the surface of a thawing river. Rafe Sagarin, mt nh sinh thi hc ti i hc Stanford California, gn y nghin cu h s ca mt cuc thi c cc, trong ngi tham gia c gng d on thi im chnh xc mt king ba chn bng g c bit s ri qua b mt ca mt dng sng tan bng.
The competition has taken place annually on the Tenana River in Alaska since , and analysis of the results showed that the thaw now arrives five days earlier than it did when the contest began. Cuc thi din ra hng nm trn sng Tenana Alaska t nm , v vic phn tch kt qu cho thy hin nay s tan bng n sm hn 5 ngy so vi thi im cuc thi bt u. Nhn chung, cc h s nh vy gip cho thy rng, so vi cch y 20 nm, rt nhiu hin tng t nhin ngy nay xy ra sm hn phn ln bn cu bc, t vic m l cho ti s tr li ca chim di c v s xut hin ca bm trong k ng ng.
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The data can also hint at how nature will change in the future. D liu cng gi cch m thin nhin s thay i trong tng lai. Together with models of climate change, amateurs' records could help guide conservation. Terry Root, an ecologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, has collected birdwatchers' counts of wildfowl taken between and on seasonal ponds in the American Midwest and combined them with climate data and models of future warming.
Terry Root, mt nh sinh thi hc n t i hc Michigan Ann Arbor, thu thp lng chim rng m c bi cc nh quan st chim thc hin t nm n nm trn cc ao thay i theo ma vng Trung Ty nc M v kt hp chng vi d liu v kh hu v m hnh s nng ln trong tng lai.
Her analysis shows that the increased droughts that the models predict could halve the breeding populations at the ponds.
Phn tch ca b cho thy s gia tng hn hn m cc m hnh d on c th lm gim mt na qun th sinh sn trong ao. But not all professionals are happy to use amateur data. Nhng khng phi mi chuyn gia u hi lng vi vic s dng d liu nghip d. Root ni: "Rt nhiu nh khoa hc s khng ng n chng, h ni rng c qu nhiu vn ".
Because different observers can have different ideas of what constitutes, for example, an open snowdrop. V cc nh quan trc khc nhau c th c nhng quan im khc nhau v iu g hnh thnh, v d, hoa git tuyt n.
Mark Schwartz n t i hc Wisconsin, Milwaukee, ngi nghin cu s tng tc gia thc vt v kh hu, ni: "S lo ngi ln nht v cc quan st c bit l h thc hin cn thn v c h thng nh th no". Parental expectations are a major cause of stress among students.
The city needs improved infrastructure to attract more investments. You must take 3 core and 2 elective courses in this semester. The student housing is of very high quality but still affordable. The latest version of the operating system has many flaws. Australian economy depends heavily on revenue from tourism and education.
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The pollution level in New Delhi has reached an alarming level. Of all the heating and cooling options, central heating is the best. Apple is expected to announce several new products this fall. The chief executive reads several new books every month. Electric cars are the future of transportation as they promise a cleaner environment. The celebrated professor contributed several innovative ideas to the field.
It is important to validate all assumptions before arriving at a conclusion. Staying near the place of work saves precious hours every day. The smart city is an idea that has captured the imagination of governments all over the world.
You must read the supplementary materials as the professor has a habit of asking questions from it. Quality of life is an important measure on which the cities are ranked.Root ni: "Rt nhiu nh khoa hc s khng ng n chng, h ni rng c qu nhiu vn ".
Trch ngun:. Tim Sparks slides a small leather-bound notebook out of an envelope. All rights reserved. The celebrated professor contributed several innovative ideas to the field.
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