PRINCIPLES OF AGRONOMY BY REDDY PDF

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bloccocverbnerbe.cf present grammar, which is chieflyintended for beginners,is believed to contain all A Sanskrit Grammar for Beginner. T. Yellamanda Reddy & G.H. Sankara Reddy is the author of Principles Of Agronomy ( avg rating, 86 ratings, 8 reviews). Principles Of Agronomy book. Read 8 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Principles Of Agronomy.


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bloccocverbnerbe.cf: Principles of Agronomy. Principles of Agronomy. Yellamanda Reddi Sankara G.H. Reddy T. Published by Kalyani Publishers. ISBN Principles of Agronomy & Agricultural Meteorology PDF Books free downloadable book Agronomy PDF books useful for agronomy related field. Principles of Agronomy and Agricultural Heritage. 2+1. I. AGR .. Delhi. 9. Yellamananda Reddy, T. and G.H. Sankara Reddi Principles of Agronomy.

Agronomy deals with methods which provide favourable environment to the crop for higher productivity. Importance of basic sciences for development of Agricultural science Basic science is the study of basic principles and fundamentals of the respective subject.

Applied science is the study in which the basic principles and fundamentals of respective subject are applied in a practical field.

Agricultural sciences are essentially applied sciences and are dependent on basic sciences of Botany, Physiology, bio-chemistry, ecology, zoology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, economics etc. For example 1. Knowledge of Botany is helpful in plant breeding and plant genetics and is making possible for evolution of different varieties in crops suitable to particular agro-climatic condition.

The knowledge of zoology basic science of entomology is helping the farmer to identify the insect pests which are responsible for damage to agricultural produce. Soil chemistry helps in understanding the plant nutrient status in the soil and the deficiency symptoms in plants. Mathematics is helpful in agricultural research and experimentation through statistics and Agricultural economics. Study of economics is helpful in estimating the cost and returns and existing conditions of farmers in villages for effecting the improvements.

Without basic science there can be no development in applied science. In the field of Agriculture basic and applied sciences are interrelated to each other. Scope of Agronomy Agronomy is a dynamic discipline.

With the advancement of knowledge and better understanding of plant and environment, agricultural practices are modified and new practices are developed for high productivity. For example, availability of chemical fertilizer has necessitated the generation of knowledge on the method, quantity and time of application of fertilizers. Similarly, availability of herbicides for the control of weeds has led to development of knowledge about selectivity, time and method of application of herbicides.

To overcome the problems different management practices are developed. Population pressure is increasing but area under cultivation is static, therefore more number of crops have to be grown on the same piece of land to increase the yield.

As a result, intensive cropping has come into practice. New technology has to be developed to overcome the effect of moisture stress under dryland conditions. As new varieties of crops with high yield potential become available, package of practices have to be developed to exploit their full potential.

Restoration of soil fertility, preparation of good seed bed, use of proper seed rates, correct dates of sowing for each improved variety, proper conservation and management of soil moisture and proper control of weeds are agronomic practices to make our limited land and water resources more productive.

Relation of Agronomy to other sciences Agronomy is a synthesis of several disciplines like soil science, Agricultural chemistry, crop physiology, plant ecology, biochemistry and economics. Soil physical, chemical and biological properties have to be understood thoroughly to effect modification of soil environment. Similarly it is necessary to understand the physiology of crops to meet their requirements.

Advances in economic analysis helped in production of crops economically. Agronomist aims to obtain maximum production at minimum cost. He exploits the knowledge developed by basic and applied science for higher crop production. Whatever may be the research findings of other scientists, agronomist has to test their suitability in the field and accept them finally and also judge the reactions of farming community.

He is a key person with working knowledge of all agricultural disciplines and coordinator of different subject matter specialists. The successional stages in food procurement and production appear to be as follows: Hunting and Gathering Domestication of animals and plants Root crop culture Shifting cultivation Subsistence Agriculture Commercial Agriculture Agriculture was very important profession during Vedic age.

Buddhist period BC marked the importance of trees. Irrigated agriculture with rice was started in south India during A. Amarakosha written during the period of Chandra Gupta II contained information on soil, irrigation, implements, manures and land use.

Most developments in India started after independence At the time of independence, cultivated area in India was And irrigated area was Now the total cultivated area is m.

India also witnessed white revolution with milk. Blue revolution with Aquaculture and partial success of Yellow revolution with oil seeds Now it is being programmed for Rainbow Revolution. Apart from traditional breeding programmes, new varieties were evolved using other techniques like use of Radio-isotopes.

Biotechnology etc. Now we also have GM plants. Tractors m Oil engines m Electrical pumps m 9 Use of seed drills has picked up.

The average farm size in India is 1. Weather forecasting systems are improved due to the use of satellite communications, particularly the short range forecast.

Principles of Agronomy & Agricultural Meteorology PDF Books

V programmes are educating the farmers about the better management practices. The region consists of skeletal soils of cold region, podsolic soils, mountain meadow soils and hilly brown soils. Lands of the region have steep slopes in undulating terrain.

Soils are generally silty loam with altitudinal variations. They are prone to erosion hazards and slides and slips are quite common. Rice, maize, millets, wheat and barley are the main crops. The productivity level of all crops is lower than the all India average.

Ginger, saffron, many temperate flowers and vegetables are grown in this region.

This zone is having highest area With the full backing of storage and cold storage facilities for transport, marketing and processing, this region will be able to supply fruits and vegetables to rest of the country. Shifting cultivation Jhum , practiced in nearly one third of the cultivated area, has caused denudation and degradation of soils, increasing in heavy runoff, massive soil erosion and floods in the lower reaches and basins.

Floods and inundation of fields in Barind and Central plains often destroy standing crops. Sesamum, Jute, mustard, rabi maize and potato are emerging as new crops of this zone. The per capita land availability here is very low 0. Marine fisheries programmes are well developed but need to be more organized. Scope for forage production and livestock rearing is very high.

Eastern U. This region has a geographical area of 16 m. There is large area under salt affected usar lands. Rice is the principal crop but its productivity is low. Zinc deficiency in rice is wide spread.

There is urgent need to improve the yield, through a technological backup along with supply of seeds of high yielding varieties and adoption of improved package of practices by the farmers. It is suggested to put unculturable wasteland under silvi-pasture and culturable land under agro-forestry.. Poultry, dairying and inland riverine fishery also should receive priority 2 Agro climatic zones of India 19 5.

Irrigation is largely through canals and tube wells.

A good potential for exploitation of ground water exists. Growth in agriculture has to come through increasing productivity as net sown area is already exploited. In all the Diara lands flood prone areas development of fruit trees is important. Milk production from cows is very low. Genetic improvement through cross breeding and increasing the area under fodder crops is important.

It is delineated into three subzones, namely, foothills of Shiwalik and the Himalayas, plains Semi arid and arid zone bordering the Thar desert. Rice-wheat system is prevalent. There is need to evolve short duration genotypes and also to diversify of the cropping. Food processing industries should be established in areas where farmers have started taking up cultivation of vegetables and fruit crops.

Orissa Northern and M. Eastern Hills and plateau III. Chattisgarh and South-Western Orissa Hills. Rainfall is nearly mm. Integrated watershed development approach to conserve soil and rainwater should be strengthened. Tank irrigation is significant for sub-zone 2 and sub-zone 5. Irrigation by tube wells is significant in sub-zone 1. Most soils are acidic and in some areas application of lime is necessary.

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Cultivation of crops like redgram, groundnut, and soybean in uplands is to be encouraged. Mustard and vegetables are to be grown in irrigated areas. The rehabilitation of degraded peripheral forests is to be taken up on a large scale. Inland fisheries programme needs to be encouraged. Irrigation and intensity of cropping are low. The literacy percentage is low and the poverty ratio is high.

Per capita availability of land is very high 0. Food crops should be replaced by oil seeds. This region forms a major part of peninsular India, with an annual average rainfall of mm. Sorghum and Cotton are the major crops in nearly half of the cultivated area.

This zone is known for the best quality oranges, grapes and bananas. The area under fruit crops is about one lakh hectares. Farmers are adopting sprinklers and the drip methods of irrigation, particularly, for fruit and vegetable crops. Low value cereals and minor millets predominate in the cropping systems. The adoption of proven dryland technology in the watershed areas should aid agriculture in this area.

Crop diversification has to be intensified and crops that require less moisture should be preferred. Poultry has developed quickly in many areas of the zone.

Rice and groundnut are the important crops. Drainage programmes, particularly in the south coastal Andhra Pradesh Krishna Godavari delta and Cauvery delta areas are a vital need, because water logging is a critical constraint affecting crop yields. Alkaline-saline soils in the region total up to 4.

Area under waste lands estimate to Waste land development programmes should be given priority. The zone with over 2, km of coastline and many inland waterways is suitable for fisheries. Brackish water fisheries and aquaculture hold great promise in this area.

This is an important zone for plantation crops and spices and fisheries. Literacy is the highest in Kerala and so is unemployment. Fruit marketing and processing should be systematized by developing appropriate infra structure.

The approach of homestead group farming system one of the agro-forestry systems of reclaiming and using khar lands saline soils or pokhali lands acidic soils needs to be planned and implemented.

This zone is important for multi-storeyed cropping. The zone is arid with low rainfall in most parts and only However it is an important oilseed zone. The major thrust should be on rainwater harvesting, dry farming and canal and ground water management. The ground water is deep and often brackish. Famine and drought are common features forcing people and animals to migrate to other places in search of water, food and fodder.

The land-man ratio is high 1. The average annual rainfall is only mm with wide fluctuations from year to year. The forest area is only 1.

The land under pastures is also low 4. The net irrigated area is only 6. Pearl millet, cluster bean guar and moth are the lead crops in kharif and wheat and gram in rabi, but the yield levels per hectare are low.

Any change in the cropping pattern is not advocated because of the fodder value of the crops. The acute shortage of fuel, fodder and forage warrants stringent efforts for development of silvipastoral systems and energy plantations to meet the scarcity and to stabilize partially the sand 23 dunes. The small area of 0. Increasing tree cover is important to a check desertification, b provide fodder to livestock, c meet the fuel needs of the population, and d provide timber implements.

Rainfall of 3, mm is spread over eight to nine months. It is largely a forest zone having large undulating areas leading to heavy loss of soil due to runoff. Nearly half of the cropped area is under coconut. This is the smallest zone with a high literacy rate and low poverty levels. Ref: Agro-climatic regional planning in India.

I concepts and applications. Basu and G. S Guha. Concept publishing Co. It extends from 12 37 to 19 54 North Latitude and 76 50 to 84 45 East Longitude. The state is divided into three regions namely Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana. The districts in each region are as follows Coastal A. The details about the geographical area, cropped area, irrigation facility and important crops grown in each zone are furnished here under. The zone has extended coastline with annual rainfall ranging from to mm.

The soils are predominantly deltaic alluvial, deep and medium black soils, red and red loamy soils and coastal sands. Soil salinity is encountered in areas adjacent to the coast and in soils under ill-drained situations. The net sown area is 2. Other important crops are pulses blackgram, greengram, redgram , sugarcane, seasmum, tobacco, chillies, cotton and banana. Mango is a widely cultivated horticultural crop of the zone.

Cropping is extensively seen during both Kharif and rabi seasons. Water congestion, impeded drainage, development of salinity, heavy rains and cyclones at the time of harvest are the major constraints of crop production. Geographical area of the zone is 1. Alluvial, coastal sand and lateritic soils also occur in this zone.

The important crops raised in the north coastal zone are rice, millets, sugarcane, groundnut, gingelly and mesta. Whatever may be the research findings of other scientists, agronomist has to test their suitability in the field and accept them finally and also judge the reactions of farming community. He is a key person with working knowledge of all agricultural disciplines and coordinator of different subject matter specialists.

The successional stages in food procurement and production appear to be as follows: Hunting and Gathering Domestication of animals and plants Root crop culture Shifting cultivation Subsistence Agriculture Commercial Agriculture Agriculture was very important profession during Vedic age. Buddhist period BC marked the importance of trees. Irrigated agriculture with rice was started in south India during A. Amarakosha written during the period of Chandra Gupta II contained information on soil, irrigation, implements, manures and land use.

Most developments in India started after independence At the time of independence, cultivated area in India was And irrigated area was Now the total cultivated area is m.

India also witnessed white revolution with milk. Blue revolution with Aquaculture and partial success of Yellow revolution with oil seeds Now it is being programmed for Rainbow Revolution. Apart from traditional breeding programmes, new varieties were evolved using other techniques like use of Radio-isotopes. Biotechnology etc. Now we also have GM plants. Tractors m Oil engines m Electrical pumps m 9 Use of seed drills has picked up.

The average farm size in India is 1. Weather forecasting systems are improved due to the use of satellite communications, particularly the short range forecast. V programmes are educating the farmers about the better management practices. The region consists of skeletal soils of cold region, podsolic soils, mountain meadow soils and hilly brown soils. Lands of the region have steep slopes in undulating terrain.

Soils are generally silty loam with altitudinal variations. They are prone to erosion hazards and slides and slips are quite common. Rice, maize, millets, wheat and barley are the main crops.

The productivity level of all crops is lower than the all India average. Ginger, saffron, many temperate flowers and vegetables are grown in this region. This zone is having highest area With the full backing of storage and cold storage facilities for transport, marketing and processing, this region will be able to supply fruits and vegetables to rest of the country.

Shifting cultivation Jhum , practiced in nearly one third of the cultivated area, has caused denudation and degradation of soils, increasing in heavy runoff, massive soil erosion and floods in the lower reaches and basins.

Floods and inundation of fields in Barind and Central plains often destroy standing crops. Sesamum, Jute, mustard, rabi maize and potato are emerging as new crops of this zone. The per capita land availability here is very low 0. Marine fisheries programmes are well developed but need to be more organized. Scope for forage production and livestock rearing is very high.

Eastern U. This region has a geographical area of 16 m. There is large area under salt affected usar lands. Rice is the principal crop but its productivity is low. Zinc deficiency in rice is wide spread. There is urgent need to improve the yield, through a technological backup along with supply of seeds of high yielding varieties and adoption of improved package of practices by the farmers.

It is suggested to put unculturable wasteland under silvi-pasture and culturable land under agro-forestry.. Poultry, dairying and inland riverine fishery also should receive priority 2 Agro climatic zones of India 19 5. Irrigation is largely through canals and tube wells. A good potential for exploitation of ground water exists. Growth in agriculture has to come through increasing productivity as net sown area is already exploited.

In all the Diara lands flood prone areas development of fruit trees is important. Milk production from cows is very low. Genetic improvement through cross breeding and increasing the area under fodder crops is important. It is delineated into three subzones, namely, foothills of Shiwalik and the Himalayas, plains Semi arid and arid zone bordering the Thar desert.

Rice-wheat system is prevalent. There is need to evolve short duration genotypes and also to diversify of the cropping. Food processing industries should be established in areas where farmers have started taking up cultivation of vegetables and fruit crops.

Orissa Northern and M. Eastern Hills and plateau III. Chattisgarh and South-Western Orissa Hills. Rainfall is nearly mm. Integrated watershed development approach to conserve soil and rainwater should be strengthened. Tank irrigation is significant for sub-zone 2 and sub-zone 5.

Irrigation by tube wells is significant in sub-zone 1. Most soils are acidic and in some areas application of lime is necessary. Cultivation of crops like redgram, groundnut, and soybean in uplands is to be encouraged.

Mustard and vegetables are to be grown in irrigated areas. The rehabilitation of degraded peripheral forests is to be taken up on a large scale. Inland fisheries programme needs to be encouraged. Irrigation and intensity of cropping are low. The literacy percentage is low and the poverty ratio is high. Per capita availability of land is very high 0. Food crops should be replaced by oil seeds.

This region forms a major part of peninsular India, with an annual average rainfall of mm. Sorghum and Cotton are the major crops in nearly half of the cultivated area. This zone is known for the best quality oranges, grapes and bananas.

The area under fruit crops is about one lakh hectares. Farmers are adopting sprinklers and the drip methods of irrigation, particularly, for fruit and vegetable crops. Low value cereals and minor millets predominate in the cropping systems. The adoption of proven dryland technology in the watershed areas should aid agriculture in this area.

Crop diversification has to be intensified and crops that require less moisture should be preferred. Poultry has developed quickly in many areas of the zone. Rice and groundnut are the important crops. Drainage programmes, particularly in the south coastal Andhra Pradesh Krishna Godavari delta and Cauvery delta areas are a vital need, because water logging is a critical constraint affecting crop yields.

Alkaline-saline soils in the region total up to 4. Area under waste lands estimate to Waste land development programmes should be given priority. The zone with over 2, km of coastline and many inland waterways is suitable for fisheries. Brackish water fisheries and aquaculture hold great promise in this area. This is an important zone for plantation crops and spices and fisheries. Literacy is the highest in Kerala and so is unemployment. Fruit marketing and processing should be systematized by developing appropriate infra structure.

The approach of homestead group farming system one of the agro-forestry systems of reclaiming and using khar lands saline soils or pokhali lands acidic soils needs to be planned and implemented.

This zone is important for multi-storeyed cropping.

Principles of Agronomy & Agricultural Meteorology PDF Books

The zone is arid with low rainfall in most parts and only However it is an important oilseed zone. The major thrust should be on rainwater harvesting, dry farming and canal and ground water management. The ground water is deep and often brackish. Famine and drought are common features forcing people and animals to migrate to other places in search of water, food and fodder. The land-man ratio is high 1. The average annual rainfall is only mm with wide fluctuations from year to year.

The forest area is only 1.

The land under pastures is also low 4. The net irrigated area is only 6. Pearl millet, cluster bean guar and moth are the lead crops in kharif and wheat and gram in rabi, but the yield levels per hectare are low. Any change in the cropping pattern is not advocated because of the fodder value of the crops. The acute shortage of fuel, fodder and forage warrants stringent efforts for development of silvipastoral systems and energy plantations to meet the scarcity and to stabilize partially the sand 23 dunes.

The small area of 0. Increasing tree cover is important to a check desertification, b provide fodder to livestock, c meet the fuel needs of the population, and d provide timber implements.

Rainfall of 3, mm is spread over eight to nine months. It is largely a forest zone having large undulating areas leading to heavy loss of soil due to runoff. Nearly half of the cropped area is under coconut. This is the smallest zone with a high literacy rate and low poverty levels. Ref: Agro-climatic regional planning in India. I concepts and applications. Basu and G. S Guha. Concept publishing Co. It extends from 12 37 to 19 54 North Latitude and 76 50 to 84 45 East Longitude.

The state is divided into three regions namely Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana. The districts in each region are as follows Coastal A. The details about the geographical area, cropped area, irrigation facility and important crops grown in each zone are furnished here under. The zone has extended coastline with annual rainfall ranging from to mm. The soils are predominantly deltaic alluvial, deep and medium black soils, red and red loamy soils and coastal sands.

Soil salinity is encountered in areas adjacent to the coast and in soils under ill-drained situations. The net sown area is 2. Other important crops are pulses blackgram, greengram, redgram , sugarcane, seasmum, tobacco, chillies, cotton and banana.

Mango is a widely cultivated horticultural crop of the zone. Cropping is extensively seen during both Kharif and rabi seasons. Water congestion, impeded drainage, development of salinity, heavy rains and cyclones at the time of harvest are the major constraints of crop production. Geographical area of the zone is 1.

Alluvial, coastal sand and lateritic soils also occur in this zone. The important crops raised in the north coastal zone are rice, millets, sugarcane, groundnut, gingelly and mesta. All the other crops are grown under rainfed conditions. The climate of the zone is dry tropical. The average annual rainfall ranges from mm. The soils of the zone are predominantly red loamy, shallow to moderately deep with limited occurrence of heavy textured black soils. Gross cropped area is 1. The principal crops cultivated in the zone are groundnut and rice with cultivation of sugarcane, ragi, bajra, redgram and other pulses limited to localized areas.

Area under millets particularly bajra and sorghum is declining giving way to sunflower. Citrus, melons and mango also are grown extensively in some parts of the zone. The climate is typically tropical rainy. The major crops grown in the zone are rice, sugarcane, jowar, pulses, maize, 27 cotton, groundnut, turmeric and chillies and others.

Wells are the main source of irrigation followed by canals. Red chalka soils are predominant. The zone covers an area of 4.

The soils of the zone are mainly red sandy, red earths and medium black soils. The zone receives an annual normal rainfall of mm. The principal crops grown in the zone are jowar, castor, rice groundnut, bajra, redgram, horsegram, ragi, greengram, maize and seasmum.

It is the castor belt of A. The zone is mostly undulated with mountains, hills and plain areas. Predominant soils of the zone are black soils. Other soils are red earths with loamy sub-soil, red sandy soil and problem soils.

The soils in Anantapur districts are shallow with low fertility. The zone is mainly characterized by frequent droughts with lowest rainfall in the state mm. Major area in the zone is rainfed and irrigated area is only The major crop of this zone is groundnut occupying about Other important crops include sorghum, foxtail millet, rice, cotton, coriander and pearl millet. Very good dryland agriculture technology is available here.

The area of this zone lies between 50 to m AMSL and is characterized by high slopes, mountains, hills and hillocks as part of Eastern Ghats. Red soils are the most predominant type The lower part of the atmosphere contains water vapour from 0. To increase infiltration rate. Loss in gaseous form N by denitrification and Volatilization So it is necessary to add nutrients to the periodically.

Granules GR 6. The adoption of proven dryland technology in the watershed areas should aid agriculture in this area.

In early plant growth stages, there will be little mutual shading and even at relatively low light intensities the plant will be able to photosynthesize with full efficiency. Activity of soil micro organisms 4. The soils are predominantly deltaic alluvial, deep and medium black soils, red and red loamy soils and coastal sands. Most of the radiation received from the sun is absorbed by the earth's surface.

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